The agreement between Belgium and Turkey contains detailed rules for the granting of social security benefits. This new treaty replaces the old social security contract between Belgium and Turkey – concluded in 1966 – and provides for coordination provisions to protect the social security rights of people subject to the Belgian and/or Turkish social security system during their careers or transferred from one social security system to another. Introduction The absence of a minimum retirement age and very low minimum contribution duration led to a financial imbalance in the Turkish social security system in the 1990s. With the idea of restructuring the social security system in the mid-2000s, the Turkish Parliament passed two important laws: the “Social Security Act” (which separately brought together the three agencies offering social security to salaried workers, self-employed and civil servants into one body for the three groups) and the “Social Security and Universal Health Insurance Act”. Since 2016, just over 20 million people have been in the social security system (premium payers). The number of retirees is about 11 million and the dependants about 34 million. Social Security The Social Security Act and the General Health Insurance Act have divided certain types of risks into three different insurance sectors and have set premium rates accordingly. Short-term unemployment insurance includes work-related accident insurance, occupational health insurance, health insurance and maternity insurance. The rights and benefits granted in the case of temporary incapacity to work, permanent disability, subsidies to insured beneficiaries, such as funeral allowance, etc., all fall into this category. The law provides for minimum alert periods to qualify for entitlements and benefits in the event of temporary disability: for example, in order to qualify for maternity benefits, social security premiums must be paid for at least 90 days, while the right to birth allowance requires the payment of premiums of at least 120 days. On the other hand, in the case of temporary and permanent disability due to an accident at work or a work-related illness, there is no minimum right required by law.
The long-term insurance sector includes old age, disability and survivor insurance. The rights and benefits for the old-age pension, a single old-age package, the disability pension, subsidies to beneficiaries of the insured, such as the survival pension or the funeral allowance, etc., all fall into this category. The retirement age is generally 58 for women and 60 for men. The retirement age for both sexes is expected to be 65 in 2048. In addition to the minimum age, self-employed workers and civil servants must pay social security premiums for at least 9,000 days, while the payment of bonuses of 7,200 days for employees is sufficient. (1) The Branch The Unemployment Insurance Sector covers benefits for workers who lose their jobs for reasons other than their own fault or will.